Baseball

The Game: Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game is played on a field by two teams of nine players each. The team at bat tries to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and running counter-clockwise around four bases: first, second, third, and home plate. The team in the field tries to prevent runs by catching the hit ball or by getting the batter or runner out in various ways. The game is divided into innings, and the team that scores the most runs by the end of the ninth inning (or after a predetermined number of innings in some leagues) wins the game. Baseball is a popular sport in many countries, especially in the United States, where it is known as America's "national pastime."

The Tests: There are several tests that are commonly performed on baseball surfaces to ensure that they meet the necessary safety and performance standards. These include tests for hardness, firmness, and consistency of the infield and pitcher's mound, as well as tests for the slope and drainage of the field. Other tests may include measuring the height of the grass, the amount of clay and silt in the soil, and the pH level of the soil. Additionally, the infield and pitcher's mound may be inspected for proper grading and compaction.

The Details: In professional baseball, the major governing bodies are Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) in Japan. MLB is made up of two leagues, the National League and the American League, each of which is divided into three divisions: East, Central, and West. MLB is the highest level of professional baseball in the world and is made up of 30 teams, 29 of which are located in the United States and one in Canada.

At the international level, the governing body for baseball is the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC), which is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the world governing body for the sports of baseball and softball. The WBSC is responsible for organizing and promoting international baseball tournaments, including the World Baseball Classic, which is an international tournament featuring national teams from around the world.